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Grade 11 Science Tutor

Grade 11 Science Tutoring

A number of different types of courses are offered in the Grade 11 and 12 science program: university preparation, university/college preparation, college preparation and workplace preparation courses. Students choose between course types on the basis of their interests, achievement, and postsecondary goals.

The course types offered in Grades 11 and 12 are defined as follows

  • University preparation courses are designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills they need to meet the entrance requirements for university programs.
  • University/college preparation courses are designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills they need to meet the entrance requirements for specific programs offered at universities and colleges.
  • College preparation courses are designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills they need to meet the requirements for entrance to most college programs or for admission to specific apprenticeship or other training programs.
  • Workplace preparation courses are designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills they need to meet the expectations of employers, if they plan to enter the workplace directly after graduation, or the requirements for admission to many apprenticeship or other training programs.

Grade 11 Science Sample Curriculum

Biology


  • Analyse some of the risks and benefits of human intervention to the biodiversity of aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems
  • Analyse the impact that climate change might have on the diversity of living things
  • Classify, and draw biological diagrams of, representative organisms from each of the kingdoms according to their unifying and distinguishing anatomical and physiological char
  • acteristics
  • Collect various organisms from a marsh, pond, field, or other ecosystem, and classify the organisms according to the principles of taxonomy
  • Create and apply a dichotomous key to identify and classify organisms from each of the kingdoms
  • Explain the fundamental principles of taxonomy and phylogeny by defining concepts of taxonomic rank and relationship
  • Compare and contrast prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses
  • Describe unifying and distinguishing anatomical and physiological characteristics of representative organisms from each of the kingdoms
  • Explain key structural and functional changes in organisms as they have evolved over time
  • Explain why biodiversity is important to maintaining viable ecosystems
  • Analyse, on the basis of research, the economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of an artificial selection technology
  • Evaluate the possible impact of an environmental change on natural selection and on the vulnerability of species
  • Investigate some of the key factors that affect the evolutionary process
  • Analyse and report on the contributions of various scientists to modern theories of evolution
  • Investigate the processes of natural selection and artificial selection and analyze the different mechanisms by which they occur
  • Explain the fundamental theory of evolution and the process of adaptation
  • Define the concept of speciation, and explain the process by which new species are formed
  • Describe some evolutionary mechanisms and explain how they affect the evolutionary development and extinction of various species
  • Analyse some of the social and ethical implications of research in genetics and genomics
  • Investigate the process of meiosis, using a microscope or a computer simulation, and draw biological diagrams to help explain the main phases in the process
  • Solve basic genetics problems involving monohybrid crosses, incomplete dominance, codominance, dihybrid crosses, and sex-linked genes
  • Investigate monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, and analyze the qualitative and quantitative data and determine the parent genotype
  • Explain the phases in the process of meiosis in terms of cell division, the movement of chromosomes, and crossing over of genetic material
  • Explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics
  • Explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance
  • Describe some genetic disorders caused by chromosomal abnormalities
  • Describe some reproductive technologies and explain how their use can increase the genetic diversity of a species
  • Evaluate the importance of various technologies to our understanding of internal body systems
  • Assess how societal needs lead to scientific and technological developments related to internal systems
  • Perform a laboratory or computer-simulated dissection of a representative animal to analyze the relationships between the respiratory, circulatory, and digestive systems
  • Monitor the functional responses of the respiratory and circulatory systems to external stimuli
  • Explain the anatomy of the respiratory system and the process of ventilation and gas exchange
  • Explain the anatomy of the digestive system and the importance of digestion
  • Explain the anatomy of the circulatory system and its function
  • Describe some disorders related to the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems
  • Evaluate the importance of plants to the growth and development of society
  • Evaluate ways in which different societies or cultures have used plants to sustain human populations while supporting environmental sustainability
  • Determine the factors that affect plant growth
  • Identify, and draw biological diagrams of, the specialized plant tissues in roots, stems, and leaves, using a microscope and models
  • Investigate various techniques of plant propagation
  • Describe the structures of the various types of tissues in vascular plants, and explain the mechanisms of transport by which materials are distributed throughout a plant
  • Compare and contrast monocot and dicot plants in terms of their structures
  • Explain the reproductive mechanisms of plants in natural reproduction and artificial propagation
  • Describe the various factors that affect plant growth
  • Explain the process of ecological succession, including the role of plants in maintaining biodiversity and the survival of organisms after a disturbance to an ecosystem

Chemistry


  • Analyse the properties of a commonly used but potentially harmful chemical substance and how that substance affects the environment, and propose ways to lessen the harmfulness of the substance or identify alternative substances that could be used for the same purpose
  • Evaluate the risks and benefits to human health of some commonly used chemical substances
  • Analyse data related to the properties of elements within a period to identify general trends in the periodic table
  • Investigate the chemical reactions of elements with other substances and produce an activity series using the resulting data
  • Draw Lewis structures to represent the bonds in ionic and molecular compounds
  • Predict the nature of a bond using electronegativity values of atoms
  • Build molecular models, and write structural formulae, for molecular compounds containing single and multiple bonds and for ionic crystalline structures
  • Write chemical formulae of binary and polyatomic compounds, including those with multiple valences, and name the compounds using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature system
  • Explain the relationship between the atomic number and the mass number of an element, and the difference between isotopes and radioisotopes of an element
  • Explain the relationship between isotopic abundance of an element’s isotopes and the relative atomic mass of the element
  • State the periodic law, and explain how patterns in the electron arrangement and forces in atoms result in periodic trends in the periodic table
  • Explain the differences between the formation of ionic bonds and covalent bonds
  • Compare and contrast the physical properties of ionic and molecular compounds
  • Analyse chemical reactions used in various industrial processes that can have an impact on the health and safety of local populations
  • Assess the effectiveness of some applications of chemical reactions that are used to address social and environmental needs and problems
  • Write balanced chemical equations to represent synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, and combustion reactions, using the IUPAC nomenclature system
  • Investigate synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, and double displacement reactions, by testing the products of each reaction
  • Predict the products of different types of synthesis and decomposition reactions
  • Predict the products of single displacement reactions, using the metal activity series and the halogen series
  • Predict the products of double displacement reactions
  • Demonstrate the difference between a complete and an incomplete combustion reaction
  • Compare the properties of non-metal oxide solutions and metal oxide solutions
  • Investigate neutralization reactions
  • Demonstrate a single displacement reaction, using elements from the metal activity series
  • Identify various types of chemical reactions
  • Explain the difference between a complete combustion reaction and an incomplete combustion reaction
  • Explain the chemical reactions that result in the formation of acids and bases from metal oxides and non-metal oxides
  • Analyse processes in the home, the workplace, and the environmental sector that involve the use of chemical quantities and calculations
  • Assess the importance of quantitative accuracy in industrial chemical processes and the potential impact on the environment if quantitative accuracy is not observed
  • Calculate the percentage composition of a compound and solve problems related to quantities in chemical reactions
  • Determine the empirical formulae and molecular formulae of various chemical compounds
  • Calculate the corresponding mass, or quantity in moles or molecules
  • Solve problems related to quantities in chemical reactions by performing calculations involving percentage yield and limiting reagents
  • Determine the actual yield, theoretical yield, and percentage yield of the products of a chemical reaction
  • Assess the effectiveness of the procedure, and suggest sources of experimental error
  • Explain the law of definite proportions
  • Describe the relationships between Avogadro’s number, the mole concept, and the molar mass
  • Explain the relationship between the empirical formula and the molecular formula
  • Explain the quantitative relationships expressed in a balanced chemical equation
  • Analyse the origins and cumulative effects of pollutants that enter our water systems and explain how these pollutants affect water quality
  • Analyse economic, social, and environmental issues related to the distribution, purification, or use of drinking water
  • Solve problems related to the concentration of solutions
  • Prepare solutions of a given concentration by dissolving a solid solute in a solvent or by diluting a concentrated solution
  • Analyse qualitative and quantitative properties of solutions
  • Write balanced net ionic equations to represent precipitation and neutralization reactions
  • Use stoichiometry to solve problems involving solutions and solubility
  • Determine the concentration of an acid or a base in a solution using the acid–base titration technique
  • Determine the concentrations of pollutants in their local treated drinking water, and compare the results to commonly used guidelines and standards
  • Describe the properties of water and explain why these properties make water such a good solvent
  • Explain the process of formation for solutions that are produced by dissolving ionic and molecular compounds in water, and for solutions that are produced by dissolving non-polar solutes in non-polar solvents
  • Explain the effects of changes in temperature and pressure on the solubility of solids, liquids, and gases
  • Identify, using a solubility table, the formation of precipitates in aqueous solutions
  • Explain the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases
  • Explain the difference between strong and weak acids, and between strong and weak bases
  • Analyse the effects on air quality of some technologies and human activities and propose actions to reduce their personal carbon footprint
  • Assess air quality conditions for a given location and report on some initiatives to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gases
  • Determine the relationships between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas
  • Solve quantitative problems by performing calculations based on Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Gay-Lussac’s law, the combined gas law, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, and the ideal gas law
  • Use stoichiometry to solve problems related to chemical reactions involving gases
  • Determine the molar volume or molar mass of a gas produced by a chemical reaction
  • Identify the major and minor chemical components of Earth’s atmosphere
  • Describe the different states of matter, and explain their differences in terms of the forces
  • Use the kinetic molecular theory to explain the properties and behavior of gases
  • Describe, for an ideal gas, the relationships that exist between pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of substance
  • Explain Avogadro’s hypothesis and how his contribution to the gas laws has increased our understanding of the chemical reactions of gases

Environmental Science


  • Describe how scientists use a variety of processes to solve problems and answer questions related to the environment
  • Explain how new evidence affects scientific knowledge about the environment and leads to modifications of theory and shifts in paradigms
  • Explain how an environmental challenge has led to advances in science or technology
  • Describe a variety of human activities that have led to environmental problems
  • Analyse grassroots initiatives that are intended to reduce the impact of environmental factors
  • Determine the impact of various environmental factors that affect human health
  • Investigate water samples from natural and disturbed environments
  • Analyse particulate matter in air
  • Investigate health standards for buildings and methods to retrofit or otherwise improve structures to reduce their negative impact on human health
  • Identify the main pollutants and environmental contaminants that can affect human health
  • Describe the effects of a variety of environmental factors on human health
  • Describe ways in which a variety of environmental contaminants can enter the human body
  • Describe measures that can reduce exposure to environmental contaminants
  • Identify a variety of populations who are particularly vulnerable to the effects of environmental factors, and explain why these populations are vulnerable
  • Evaluate a variety of agricultural and forestry practices
  • Evaluate the impact of agricultural and forestry practices on human health
  • Test samples of a variety of types of soil to determine their nutrients and composition
  • Investigate the nutrients in and composition of a variety of compost samples and analyze the findings to determine appropriate uses for each sample
  • Prepare a soil mixture for a selected plant species
  • Investigate environmentally sustainable methods of managing and maintaining healthy and productive agricultural zones and forests
  • Design a landscaping project for their local area
  • Explain the basic principles of various agricultural and forestry practices and identify regulations and regulatory bodies associated with these practices
  • Describe the basic requirements for plant growth
  • Describe the soil components needed by a variety of plants for optimal growth
  • Explain different practices for improving and maintaining soil structure and fertility
  • Explain agricultural techniques and forestry practices that aim to maintain both biodiversity and long-term productivity
  • Describe sustainable water-management practices in agricultural and forestry settings
  • Analyse the impact of economic and political considerations on the development of waste management practices or strategies
  • Evaluate the short- and long-term impact on the environment of a specific type of waste
  • Plan and conduct an inquiry in a microenvironment to treat a solid, liquid, or gaseous waste
  • Investigate the waste generated throughout the life cycle of a product
  • Plan and conduct a waste audit within their school, and propose a plan of action for waste reduction
  • Investigate a local, regional, national, or global waste management practice
  • Describe different categories of waste
  • Explain some current waste remediation practices used with substances or products that are not environmentally friendly
  • Describe the scientific principles involved in processing solid, liquid, and gaseous waste
  • Explain common strategies and technologies used in the collection and storage of waste
  • Explain how scientific knowledge and technological processes have been applied in the development of environmentally sound waste management strategies
  • Evaluate the impact on the environment of renewable and non-renewable energy sources, and propose an environmentally friendly solution to reduce non-renewable energy consumption
  • Assess the costs and benefits to society of the use of renewable and non-renewable energy
  • Investigate energy consumption and costs in their household and suggest ways in which their household could conserve energy
  • Plan and conduct an energy audit of a home or business, and propose ways to improve its energy efficiency
  • Design and construct a working model of a device that uses an alternative energy source
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of various insulation materials and techniques
  • Explain the historical significance of a variety of energy sources and describe their long-term impact on the environment
  • Describe the characteristics of a sustainable energy system
  • Explain the basic principles and characteristics of various types of renewable and non-renewable energy production and their impact on the environment
  • Describe methods of energy production and conservation intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • Describe technological advances aimed at reducing energy consumption

Physics


  • Analyse a technology that applies concepts related to kinematics
  • Assess the impact on society and the environment of a technology that applies concepts related to kinematics
  • Analyse and interpret position–time, velocity– time, and acceleration–time graphs of motion in one dimension
  • Use a velocity–time graph for constant acceleration to derive the equation for average velocity and the equations for displacement and solve simple problems in one dimension
  • Conduct an inquiry into the uniform and non-uniform linear motion of an object
  • Solve problems involving distance, position, and displacement
  • Plan and conduct an inquiry into the motion of objects in one dimension
  • Solve problems involving uniform and non-uniform linear motion in one and two dimensions, using graphical analysis and algebraic equations
  • Solve problems related to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of a projectile
  • Conduct an inquiry into the projectile motion of an object, and analyze, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the relationship between the horizontal and vertical components
  • Distinguish between the terms constant, instantaneous, and average with reference to speed, velocity, and acceleration, and provide examples to illustrate each term
  • Distinguish between, and provide examples of, scalar and vector quantities as they relate to the description of uniform and non-uniform linear motion
  • Describe the characteristics of a projectile’s motion in vertical and horizontal planes
  • Analyse a technology that applies these laws and propose ways to improve its performance
  • Evaluate the impact on society and the environment of technologies that use force
  • Conduct an inquiry that applies Newton’s laws to analyze the forces acting on an object, and use free-body diagrams to determine the net force and the acceleration of the object
  • Conduct an inquiry into the relationship between the acceleration of an object and its net force and mass and analyze the resulting data
  • Analyse the relationships between acceleration and applied forces and solve related problems involving forces in one dimension, using free-body diagrams and algebraic equations
  • Analyse the effect of forces acting on objects in one dimension, using vector diagrams, free-body diagrams, and Newton’s laws
  • Analyse the relationship between the force of gravity and acceleration for objects in free fall
  • Distinguish between different forces and describe the effect of each type of force on the velocity of an object
  • Explain how the theories and discoveries of Galileo and Newton advanced knowledge of the effects of forces on the motion of objects
  • State Newton’s laws, and apply them to explain the effect of forces acting on objects
  • Describe the relationships between mass, gravitational field strength, and force of gravity
  • Analyse a technology that involves the transfer and transformation of thermal energy
  • Assess how technologies related to nuclear, thermal, or geothermal energy affect society and the environment
  • Solve problems relating to work, force, and displacement along the line of force
  • Use the law of conservation of energy to solve problems in simple situations involving work, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and thermal energy and its transfer
  • Plan and conduct inquiries involving transformations between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy to test the law of conservation of energy
  • Solve problems involving the relationship between power, energy, and time
  • Solve problems involving the relationship between power and work
  • Compare and contrast the input energy, useful output energy, and per cent efficiency of selected energy generation methods
  • Investigate the relationship between conservation of mass and conservation of energy, and solve problems using the mass– energy equivalence
  • Determine the specific heat capacity of a single substance and of two substances when they are mixed together
  • Solve problems involving changes in temperature and changes of state, using algebraic equations (e.g., Q = mcΔT, Q = mLf , Q = mLv)
  • Draw and analyze heating and cooling curves
  • Describe a variety of energy transfers and transformations, and explain them using the law of conservation of energy
  • Explain the concepts of and interrelationships between energy, work, and power, and identify and describe their related units
  • Explain the following concepts, giving examples of each, and identify their related units: thermal energy, kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, heat, specific heat capacity, specific latent heat, power, and efficiency
  • Identify, qualitatively, the relationship between efficiency and thermal energy transfer
  • Describe the conditions that are required for work to be done
  • Describe and compare nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
  • Explain the energy transfer that occurs during changes of state
  • Distinguish between conduction, convection, and radiation
  • Identify and describe the structure of common nuclear isotopes
  • Compare the characteristics of and safety precautions related to alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays
  • Explain radioactive half-life for a given radioisotope, and describe applications and consequences
  • Explain the energy transformations that occur within a nuclear power plant
  • Analyse how properties of mechanical waves and sound influence the design of structures and technological devices
  • Analyse the negative impact that mechanical waves and sound can have on society and the environment, and assess the effectiveness of a technology intended to reduce this impact
  • Conduct laboratory inquiries or computer simulations involving mechanical waves and their interference
  • Determine the speed of waves in a medium compare theoretical and empirical values, and account for discrepancies
  • Investigate the relationship between the wavelength, frequency, and speed of a wave
  • Analyse the relationship between a moving source of sound and the change in frequency perceived by a stationary observer
  • Predict the conditions needed to produce resonance in vibrating objects or air columns
  • Analyse the conditions required to produce resonance in vibrating objects and in air columns and explain how resonance is used in a variety of situations
  • Distinguish between longitudinal and transverse waves in different media
  • Explain the components of resonance, and identify conditions required for resonance to occur
  • Explain and graphically illustrate the principle of superposition
  • Identify the properties of standing waves, and explain the conditions required for standing waves to occur
  • Explain the relationship between the speed of sound
  • Explain selected natural phenomena
  • Analyse the social and economic impact of technologies related to electromagnetism
  • Analyse the efficiency and the environmental impact of one type of electrical energy production
  • Analyse diagrams of series, parallel, and mixed circuits
  • Design and build mixed direct current (DC) circuits, and explain the circuits
  • Identify the characteristics and properties of magnetic fields
  • Investigate the magnetic fields produced by an electric current flowing through a long straight conductor and a solenoid
  • Solve problems involving energy, power, potential difference, current, and the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils of a transformer
  • Investigate electromagnetic induction, and the law of conservation of energy, and the right-hand rule, explain and illustrate the direction of the electric current induced by a changing magnetic field
  • Construct a prototype of a device that uses the principles of electromagnetism and test and refine their device
  • Describe the properties of magnetic fields in permanent magnets and electromagnets
  • Distinguish between conventional current and electron flow
  • Explain Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s laws, Oersted’s principle, the motor principle, Faraday’s law, and Lenz’s law
  • Describe the production and interaction of magnetic fields
  • Explain the operation of an electric motor and a generator
  • Distinguish between alternating current (AC) and direct current
  • Describe the components of step-up and step-down transformers, and explain the operation of these transformers
  • Describe and explain safety precautions related to electrical circuits and higher transmission voltages
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