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Grade 12 Science Tutor

Grade 12 Science Tutoring

Four types of courses are offered in the Grade 11 and 12 science program: university preparation, university/college preparation, college preparation, and workplace preparation courses. Students choose between course types on the basis of their interests, achievement, and postsecondary goals.


Grade 12 Science Sample Curriculum

Biology


  • Analyse technological applications related to enzyme activity in the food and pharmaceutical industries
  • Evaluate some advances in cellular biology and related technological applications
  • Demonstrate the movement of substances across a membrane
  • Construct and draw three-dimensional molecular models of important biochemical compounds
  • Identify and compare biochemical compounds found in food samples
  • Explain the roles of various organelles in cellular processes
  • Describe the structure of important biochemical compounds and explain their function within cells
  • Identify common functional groups within biological molecules and explain how they contribute to the function of each molecule
  • Describe the chemical structures and mechanisms of various enzymes
  • Identify and describe the four main types of biochemical reactions
  • Describe the structure of cell membranes according to the fluid mosaic model, and explain the dynamics of passive transport, facilitated diffusion, and the movement of large particles across the cell membrane by the processes of endocytosis and exocytosis
  • Analyse the role of metabolic processes in the functioning of and interactions between biotic and abiotic systems
  • Assess the relevance of an understanding of cell biology and related technologies
  • Conduct a laboratory investigation into the process of cellular respiration
  • Conduct a laboratory investigation of the process of photosynthesis explain the chemical changes and energy conversions associated with aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration
  • Explain the chemical changes and energy conversions associated with photosynthesis
  • Use the laws of thermodynamics to explain energy transfer in the cell during the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis
  • Describe, compare, and illustrate the matter and energy transformations that occur during the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis
  • Analyse some of the social, ethical, and legal implications of biotechnology
  • Analyse some key aspects of regulations pertaining to biotechnology and compare them to regulations from another jurisdiction
  • Analyse a simulated strand of DNA to determine the genetic code and base pairing of DNA
  • Extract DNA from a specimen of plant or animal protein
  • Investigate and analyze the cell components involved in the process of protein synthesis
  • Explain the current model of DNA replication, and describe the different repair mechanisms that can correct mistakes in DNA sequencing
  • Compare the structures and functions of RNA and DNA, and explain their roles in the process of protein synthesis
  • Explain the process of protein synthesis and how genetic expression is controlled in prokaryotes and eukaryotes by regulatory proteins
  • Explain how mutagens can cause mutations by changing the genetic material in cells
  • Describe some examples of genetic modification, and explain how it is applied in industry and agriculture
  • Describe the functions of some of the cell components used in biotechnology
  • Describe some of the historical scientific contributions that have advanced our understanding of molecular genetics
  • Assess the effects on the human body of taking chemical substances to enhance performance or improve health
  • Evaluate some of the human health issues that arise from the impact of human activities on the environment
  • Plan and construct a model to illustrate the essential components of the homeostatic process
  • Plan and conduct an investigation to study a feedback system
  • Study the response mechanism of an invertebrate to external stimuli
  • Describe the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine, excretory, and nervous systems, and explain how these systems interact to maintain homeostasis
  • Explain how reproductive hormones act in human feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis
  • Describe the homeostatic processes involved in maintaining water, ionic, thermal, and acid–base equilibrium, and explain how these processes help body systems respond to both a change in environment and the effects of medical treatments
  • Analyse the effects of human population growth, personal consumption, and technological development on our ecological footprint
  • Assess the effectiveness of some technologies and projects intended to nourish expanding populations
  • Calculate the growth of populations of various species in an ecosystem
  • Determine the characteristics of population growth of two different populations
  • Explain the concepts of interaction between different species
  • Describe the characteristics of a given population, such as its growth, density
  • Explain factors that cause fluctuation in populations, and analyze the fluctuation in the population of a species of plant, wild animal, or microorganism
  • Explain the concept of energy transfer in a human
  • Explain how a change in one population in an aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem can affect the entire hierarchy of living things in that system

Chemistry


  • Assess the impact on human health, society, and the environment of organic compounds used in everyday life
  • Propose a personal course of action to reduce the use of compounds that are harmful to human health and the environment
  • Use International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature conventions to identify names, write chemical formulae, and create structural formulae for the different classes of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, amines, amides, and simple aromatic compounds
  • Build molecular models for a variety of simple organic compounds
  • Analyse, on the basis of inquiry, various organic chemical reactions
  • Compare the different classes of organic compounds
  • Describe the similarities and differences in physical properties within each class of organic compounds
  • Explain the chemical changes that occur during various types of organic chemical reactions
  • Explain the difference between an addition reaction and a condensation polymerization reaction
  • Explain the concept of isomerism in organic compounds, and how variations in the properties of isomers relate to their structural and molecular formulae
  • Assess the benefits to society of technologies that are based on the principles of atomic and molecular structures
  • Evaluate the benefits to society, and the impact on the environment, of specialized materials on the structure of matter and chemical bonding
  • Use the Pauli exclusion principle, Hund’s rule, and the aufbau principle to write electron configurations for a variety of elements in the periodic table
  • Predict the shapes of simple molecules and ions using the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model, and draw diagrams to represent their molecular shape
  • Predict the polarity of various chemical compounds, based on their molecular shapes and the difference in the electronegativity values of the atoms
  • Predict the type of solid (ionic, molecular, covalent network, metallic) formed by a given substance in a chemical reaction, and describe the properties of that solid
  • Observe and analyze the physical properties of various substances
  • Explain how experimental observations and inferences made by Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr contributed to the development of the planetary model of the hydrogen atom
  • Describe the electron configurations of a variety of elements in the periodic table, using the concept of energy levels in shells and subshells, as well as the Pauli exclusion principle, Hund’s rule, and the aufbau principle
  • Identify the characteristic properties of elements in each of the s, p, and d blocks of the periodic table, and explain the relationship between the position of an element in the periodic table, its properties, and its electron configuration
  • Explain how the physical properties of a solid or liquid
  • Describe a contribution to the field of atomic and molecular theory
  • Analyse some conventional and alternative energy technologies and evaluate them in terms of their efficiency and impact on the environment
  • Analyse the conditions required to maximize the efficiency of some common natural or industrial chemical reactions and explain how the improved efficiency of the reaction contributes to environmental sustainability
  • Write thermochemical equations
  • Solve problems involving analysis of heat transfer in a chemical reaction
  • Calculate, using a calorimeter, the heat of reaction of a substance compare the actual heat of reaction to the theoretical value, and suggest sources of experimental error
  • Solve problems related to energy changes in a chemical reaction, using Hess’s law
  • Calculate the heat of reaction for a formation reaction, using a table of standard enthalpies of formation and applying Hess’s law
  • Determine how various factors affect the rate of a chemical reaction
  • Compare the energy changes resulting from physical change chemical reactions and nuclear reactions in terms of whether energy is released or absorbed
  • Compare the energy change from a reaction in which bonds are formed to one in which bonds are broken, and explain these changes in terms of endothermic and exothermic reactions
  • Explain how mass, heat capacity, and change in temperature of a substance determine the amount of heat gained or lost by the substance
  • State Hess’s law, and explain how it is applied to find the enthalpy changes of a reaction
  • Explain how factors such as temperature, the surface area of the reactants, the nature of the reactants, the addition of catalysts, and the concentration of the solution control the rate of a chemical reaction
  • Describe simple potential energy diagrams of chemical reactions
  • Explain, with reference to a simple chemical reaction, how the rate of a reaction is determined by the series of elementary steps that make up the overall reaction mechanism
  • Analyse the optimal conditions for a specific chemical process related to the principles of equilibrium that takes place in nature or is used in industry
  • Assess the impact of chemical equilibrium processes on various biological, biochemical, and technological systems
  • Predict how various factors would affect a chemical system at equilibrium, and conduct an inquiry to test those predictions
  • Determine the value of an equilibrium constant for a chemical reaction
  • Solve problems related to equilibrium by performing calculations involving concentrations of reactants and products
  • Solve problems related to acid–base equilibrium, using acid–base titration data and the pH at the equivalence point
  • Explain the concept of dynamic equilibrium, using examples of physical and chemical equilibrium systems
  • Explain the concept of chemical equilibrium and how it applies to the concentration of reactants and products in a chemical reaction at equilibrium
  • Explain Le Châtelier’s principle and how it applies to changes to a chemical reaction at equilibrium
  • Identify common equilibrium constants and write the expressions for each
  • Use the ionization constant of water (Kw) to calculate pH, pOH, [H3O+], and [OH– ] for chemical reactions E3.6 explain the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases
  • Compare the properties of strong and weak acids, and strong and weak bases
  • Describe the chemical characteristics of buffer solutions
  • Assess the viability of using electrochemical technologies as alternative sources of energy and explain their potential impact on society and the environment
  • Analyse, in qualitative terms, an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction
  • Write balanced chemical equations for oxidation-reduction reactions
  • Build a galvanic cell and measure its cell potential
  • Analyse the processes in galvanic cells, and draw labelled diagrams of these cells to show the oxidation or reduction reaction that occurs in each of the half-cells, the direction of electron flow, the electrode polarity, the cell potential, and the direction of ion movement
  • Predict the spontaneity of redox reactions
  • Explain redox reactions in terms of the loss and gain of electrons and the associated change in oxidation number
  • Identify the components of a galvanic cell, and explain how each component functions in a redox reaction
  • Describe galvanic cells in terms of oxidation and reduction half-cells whose voltages can be used to determine overall cell potential
  • Explain how the hydrogen half-cell is used as a standard reference to determine the voltages of another half-cell
  • Explain some applications of electrochemistry in common industrial processes
  • Explain the corrosion of metals and describe some common corrosion-inhibiting techniques

Earth and Space Science


  • Analyse a major milestone in astronomical knowledge or theory
  • Analyse why and how a particular technology related to astronomical research was developed and how it has been improved over time
  • Locate observable features of the night sky and record the location of these features using astronomical terms and systems
  • Analyse spectroscopic data mathematically or graphically to determine various properties of stars
  • Use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to determine the interrelationships between the properties of stars
  • Investigate, in quantitative terms, properties of stars, including their distance from Earth, surface temperature, absolute magnitude, and luminosity
  • Investigate the basic features of different types of galaxies including the Milky Way
  • Describe the theoretical and evidential underpinnings of the big bang theory and their implications for the evolution of the universe
  • Explain the scale of distances between celestial bodies and the methods astronomers use to determine these distances
  • Describe the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation and the ways in which each region of the electromagnetic spectrum is used in making astronomical observations
  • Explain how stars are classified
  • Explain, with reference to a specific star, how astronomers determine the properties of stars
  • Describe the sequence of events in the life cycle of a star
  • Explain the relationship between the type of death of a star and the star’s initial mass
  • Analyse political considerations related to, and economic and environmental consequences of, exploration of the solar system
  • Analyse, on the basis of research, a specific technology that is used in space exploration and that has applications in other areas of research or in the environmental sector
  • Identify geological features and processes that are common to Earth and other bodies in the solar system and create a model or illustration to show these features
  • Investigate the effects of various forms of radiation and high-energy particles on bodies, organisms, and devices within the solar system
  • Investigate the ways in which interactions between solid bodies have helped to shape the solar system, including Earth
  • Investigate the properties of Earth that protect life from hazards such as radiation and collision with other bodies
  • Investigate techniques used to study and understand objects in the solar system
  • Explain the composition of the solar system and describe the characteristics of each component
  • Identify and explain the classes of objects orbiting the sun
  • Explain the formation of the solar system
  • Identify the factors that determined the properties of bodies in the solar system
  • Identify and explain the properties of celestial bodies within or beyond the solar system, other than Earth, that might support the existence of life
  • Compare Earth with other objects in the solar system with respect to properties such as mass, size, composition, rotation, magnetic field, and gravitational field
  • Identify Kepler’s laws, and use them to describe planetary motions
  • Identify Newton’s laws, and use them to explain planetary motion
  • Describe the major external processes and phenomena that affect Earth
  • Analyse the relationship between climate and geology, and assess the impact of long-term climate change
  • Investigate preserved geological evidence of major changes in Earth history
  • Illustrate how geological time scales compare to human time scales
  • Illustrate the development of various types of unconformities preserved in a sequence of strata
  • Build a model to represent radioactive decay and the concept of half-life determination
  • Investigate interactions over time between physical, chemical, and biological processes, and explain how they have affected environmental conditions throughout Earth’s geological history
  • Describe evidence for the evolution of life
  • Describe various kinds of evidence that life forms, climate, continental positions, and Earth’s crust have changed over time
  • Describe some processes by which fossils are produced and preserved
  • Compare and contrast relative and absolute dating principles and techniques
  • Identify and describe the various methods of isotopic age determination, giving for each the name of the isotope, its half-life, its effective dating range, and some of the materials that it can be used to date
  • Explain the different types of evidence used to determine the age of Earth
  • Assess the direct and indirect impact on local, provincial/regional, or national economies of the exploration for and extraction and refinement/processing of Earth materials
  • Analyse technologies and techniques used to explore for and extract natural resources, and assess their actual or potential environmental repercussions
  • Investigate the properties of various Earth materials and explain how these properties affect how the materials are used and what technologies and techniques are used to explore for or extract them
  • Identify and classify common minerals
  • Investigate common igneous rocks, classify them on the basis of their texture and composition and use this information to determine their origins
  • Investigate sedimentary rocks, classify them on the basis of their texture and composition and use this information to determine their origin
  • Investigate metamorphic rocks and classify them on the basis of their characteristics in order to identify their parent rock and the temperature, pressure, and chemical conditions at their formation
  • Investigate a geological setting in their local area and identify and classify rock samples collected from that area
  • Investigate the factors that determine the size and form of mineral crystals
  • Identify the physical and chemical properties of selected minerals, and describe the tests used to determine these properties
  • Describe the formation and identify the distinguishing characteristics of igneous rocks
  • Describe the formation of clastic and chemical sediments, and the characteristics of the corresponding sedimentary rocks
  • Describe the different ways in which metamorphic rocks are formed
  • Describe the role of Earth materials in the safe disposal of industrial and urban waste and toxic materials
  • Evaluate the accuracy and reliability of technological methods of monitoring and predicting earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions
  • Analyse developments in technology or Earth science endeavours
  • Analyse the relationship between human activities and various geological structures and processes
  • Investigate the difference between weathering and erosion and construct models of the processes of physical, chemical, and biological weathering
  • Produce a model showing simple sedimentary sequences
  • Investigate the main types of seismic waves, and produce a model
  • Locate the epicentre of an earthquake, given the appropriate seismographic data
  • Produce a scale mode of the interior of Earth
  • Design and test models that show the types and causes of mass wasting
  • Analyse information from a plan view and sectional view
  • Describe the types of boundaries between lithospheric plates, and explain the types of internal Earth processes occurring at each
  • Describe the characteristics of the main types of seismic waves and explain the different modes of travel, travel times, and types of motion associated with each
  • Compare qualitative and quantitative methods used to measure earthquakes
  • Explain how different erosional processes contribute to changing landscapes
  • Identify and describe types of sediment transport and the types of load as sediment is moved by each type of transport
  • Describe the landforms produced by water, wind, or ice erosion
  • Describe the sedimentary structures formed by wind, water, or ice deposition
  • Identify major areas of tectonic activity in the world by plotting the location of major recorded earthquakes and active volcanoes on a map, and distinguish the areas by type of tectonic activity
  • Explain the processes of continuous recycling of major rock types

Physics


  • Analyse a technological device that applies the principles of linear or circular motion
  • Assess the impact on society and the environment of technological devices that use linear or circular motion
  • Solve problems related to motion
  • Analyse the relationships between the force of gravity, normal force, applied force, force of friction, coefficient of static friction, and coefficient of kinetic friction, and solve related two-dimensional problems using free-body diagrams, vector components, and algebraic equations
  • Predict the forces acting on systems of objects and plan and conduct an inquiry to test their predictions
  • Analyse the relationships between the motion of a system and the forces involved and use free-body diagrams and algebraic equations to solve related problems
  • Analyse the forces acting on and the acceleration experienced by an object in uniform circular motion in horizontal and vertical planes, and use free-body diagrams and algebraic equations to solve related problems
  • Conduct inquiries into the uniform circular motion of an object and analyze the relationships between centripetal acceleration, centripetal force, radius of orbit, period, frequency, mass, and speed
  • Distinguish between reference systems with respect to the real and apparent forces acting within such systems
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of static and kinetic friction
  • Explain the derivation of equations for uniform circular motion that involve the variables frequency, period, radius speed, and mass
  • Assess the impact on society and the environment of technologies or procedures that apply the principles of energy and momentum
  • Analyse the relationship between work and energy, using the work–energy theorem and the law of conservation of energy, and solve related problems in one and two dimensions
  • Analyse situations involving work, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal energy, and elastic potential energy, in one and two dimensions and use the law of conservation of energy to solve related problems
  • Test the law of conservation of energy during energy transformations that involve gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal energy, and elastic potential energy
  • Analyse the relationships between mass, velocity, kinetic energy, momentum, and impulse for a system of objects moving in one and two dimensions and solve problems involving these concepts
  • Analyse elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, using the laws of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy, and solve related problems
  • Conduct laboratory inquiries or computer simulations involving collisions and explosions in one and two dimensions to test the laws of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy
  • Describe and explain Hooke’s law, and explain the relationships between that law, work, and elastic potential energy in a system of objects
  • Explain the simple harmonic motion (SHM) of an object, and explain the relationship between SHM, Hooke’s law, and uniform circular motion
  • Distinguish between elastic and inelastic collisions
  • Explain the implications of the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum with reference to mechanical systems
  • Explain how the laws of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum were used to predict the existence and properties of the neutrino
  • Analyse the operation of a technological system that uses gravitational, electric, or magnetic fields
  • Assess the impact on society and the environment of technologies that use gravitational, electric, or magnetic fields
  • Analyse, and solve problems relating to, Newton’s law of universal gravitation and circular motion
  • Solve problems involving electric force, field strength, potential energy, and potential as they apply to uniform and non-uniform electric fields
  • Solve problems involving the force on charges moving in a uniform magnetic field
  • Examine the behavior of a particle in a field
  • Identify, and compare the properties of, fundamental forces that are associated with different theories and models of physics
  • Compare and contrast the properties of gravitational, electric, and magnetic fields
  • Use field diagrams to explain differences in the sources and directions of fields
  • Analyse, with reference to the principles related to the wave nature of light, a technology that uses these principles
  • Assess the impact of technologies that use the wave nature of light
  • Conduct inquiries involving the diffraction and interference of waves, using ripple tanks or computer simulations
  • Conduct inquiries involving the diffraction, refraction, polarization, and interference of light waves
  • Analyse diffraction and interference of water waves and light waves and solve related problems
  • Describe and explain the diffraction and interference of water waves in two dimensions
  • Describe and explain the diffraction, refraction, polarization, and interference of light waves
  • Explain the separation of light into colours in various situations
  • Describe the production of electromagnetic radiation by an oscillating electric dipole
  • Analyse the development of the two major revolutions in modern physics and assess how they changed scientific thought
  • Assess the importance of relativity and quantum mechanics to the development of various technologies
  • Solve problems related to the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, and de Broglie’s matter waves
  • Solve problems related to Einstein’s theory of special relativity in order to calculate the effects of relativistic motion on time, length, and mass
  • Analyse data that support a scientific theory related to relativity or quantum mechanics
  • Describe the experimental evidence that supports a particle model of light
  • Describe the experimental evidence that supports a wave model of matter
  • Identify Einstein’s two postulates for the theory of special relativity, and describe the evidence supporting the theory
  • Describe the standard model of elementary particles in terms of the characteristics of quarks, hadrons, and field particles
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